A History of Psychology in Metascientific Perspective by K. B. Madsen

By K. B. Madsen

Fields of curiosity are mixed during this quantity: the background of technology and the idea, or philosophy, of technology (metascience). the result's a background of psychology with emphasis positioned upon a metascientific research of the paintings of fourteen psychologists from a variety of periods.Each research is determined in ancient context; a interval or university is mentioned in each one bankruptcy, including a metascientific research of a few significant works from the respective interval or institution. the writer employs a metascientific descriptive method or `systematology' constructed in the course of greater than 30 years of labor on comparative, metascientific reviews of approximately 50 mental theories. the result of these reviews were released in past works. those analyses also are used right here for verifying T.S. Kuhn's much-debated concept concerning the `revolutionary' improvement of sciences. the writer revises Kuhn's conception and exhibits that it may be utilized to the historical past of psychology. hence, in a Kuhnian experience, psychology will be acknowledged to have had `normal classes' and `periods of trouble' resulting in college formation.

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A) Man can achieve completely objective or true knowledge of reality (so-called 'naive realism'). (b) Man can achieve cognition that is influenced by his own sense organs and brain and his entire 'cognitive system' (so-called 'critical realism'). To this epistemological theory belong the hypotheses about the primary and secondary sense qualities (respectively form, size and weight, etc. and colour, taste and smell), and about the subjectivity of the secondary sense qualities. The evolution of science 37 ( 2 ) Idealism: There exists no objective reality independent of the cognizing person's consciousness.

EPISTEMOLOGICAL THESES. During the course of time two epistemological problems with particular relevance to the philosophy of science have been discussed the origin of cognition and its relation to reality. a. The origin of cognition. The two main theories propounded about this problem are: (1) Empiricism: The origin of cognition is 'experience' or observation. ( 2 ) Rationalism. The origin of cognition is rational thinking. In modem European philosophy many epistemological theories have also been propounded in the way of combinations or syntheses of these two main theories.

Naturally this process may also be involved in the planning of empirical research, as well as in connection with the empirical or data-stratum. However, it is mostly characteristic of the hypothetical stratum. (3) The philosophical or meta-stratum is a product of philosophical thinking, which to a greater extent than theoretical thinking involves the process known in psychology as divergent (creative, intuitive) thinking. As will be noticed, it is not possible to make any clear distinctions on the basis of the activities produced, but when collated with the following it becomes possible in practice.

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