Advances in Downy Mildew Research by P.T.N. Spencer-Phillips, U. Gisi, A. Lebeda

By P.T.N. Spencer-Phillips, U. Gisi, A. Lebeda

P. T. N. SPENCER-PHILLIPS Co-ordinator, Downy mold operating staff of the foreign Society for Plant Pathology collage of the West of britain, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, united kingdom e-mail: it's a very nice privilege to jot down the preface to the 1st professional e-book on downy mildews because the significant paintings edited by means of D. M. Spencer in 1981. the assumption for the current e-book arose from the Downy mould Workshop on the foreign Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) held in Edinburgh in August 1998. Our goal used to be to ask stories on chosen features of downy mould biology from foreign experts, and hyperlink those to a sequence of similar brief contributions reporting new facts. No test has been made to hide the breadth of downy mold study, yet we are hoping that extra themes may be incorporated in destiny volumes, in order that this turns into the 1st of a sequence following the 5 12 months ICPP cycle.

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Apart from the host identity, simplistic morphological assessments are often all that are used. Gustavsson (1959a, 1959b) and Constantinescu (1979, 1989, 1991a, 1991b, 1992, 1996a, 1996b, 1998) have adopted a more considered, but still morphological, approach. See Hall (1996) for a more recent review of species concepts. Peronospora is most common on the Ranunculales-Caryophyllales, Eurosids I (Fabales, Rosales [including Urticaceae] and Malpighiales [Euphorbiaceae and Violaceae]); Eurosids II (Brassicales); Asterids (but not Asteraceae); all are late-evolving angiosperm orders, of which many members are herbaceous and found in conditions of high insolation (montane, mediterranean, or both).

It is from the South American and African plates that angiosperms with the potential for becoming parasitized by pre-DM fungi have had their origin. Pollen from the Cretaceous is known for the Caryophyllales (Amaranthaceae), Malpighiales (Euphorbiaceae) and Myrtales (Onagraceae) and early Tertiary pollen is known for the Malvales and Solanales (Convolvulaceae) (Muller, 1981, in Dick, 1988). These are all significant families for the DMs (see Figure 1). 3. GRAZING The pasture grasses are the most prominent components of the floras of savannah and prairie.

Other possible biochemically-mediated organismal complexes have been envisaged, for example, the suggestion (Sansome and Sansome, 1974) that Albugo and Peronospora are synergistic on crucifers, and the susceptibility of beans to Pseudoperonospora cubensis only after prior infection by Uromyces (Yarwood, 1977). 3. MONOCOTYLEDONICOLOUS DOWNY MILDEWS Almost all DMs in monocotyledons occur in grasses. The grass family, Poaceae, is very large (>9500 spp. world-wide) and Clayton and Renvoize (1986) suggest that although the origins of the grasses may have been in the Southern Hemisphere (Gondwanaland continents) with the subfamily Bambusoideae, the more advanced subfamilies and tribes have evolved in North Africa, South East Asia and Europe.

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