Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen by Michael Frank Hordeski

By Michael Frank Hordeski

Spiraling oil costs, hovering international call for, long term oil offer concerns, and lengthening matters over the weather impression of carbon emissions all are components contributing to speedily becoming help and critical efforts towards the improvement of a hydrogen-based economic system. This ebook will tackle the various elements affecting present and rising strength use offerings, together with the provision and desirability of varied fuels - and particularly, hydrogen. subject matters contain strength coverage, gas provide tendencies, facts and projections, oil reserves, replacement eventualities, strength usage, sustainable strength, fee research, gas escalation, power and improvement, regulatory matters, limitations to implementation, conversion platforms, garage platforms, thermodynamic potency, gas chain potency, life-cycle potency, expertise matters, extracting, refining, air emission matters, safeguard, average gasoline, hydrogen gasoline, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming, and gas cells.6 x nine, 244 pp, Illus., Hardcover

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Sample text

Modern by-product or chemical recovery ovens save the volatile components and produce coke. Large plants may use hundreds of horizontal ovens, in batteries of 50 to 60. A typical oven is 45 feet long by 13 feet high by 7 feet wide. It is made of steel with a lining of silica bricks and hermetically sealed by a door at each end. In the sidewalls separating the furnaces, there are flues for boilers which operate at a temperature between 2,200°F and 2,700°F. They burn a mixture of rich gas from the ovens and poor gas from gas generators.

However, finding, extracting and delivering these so-called primary energy sources requires energy and major investments before they can be utilized. Coal and natural gas come closer to true primary energy sources since they can be burned directly with little or no refining, but energy is still needed to extract these resources and deliver them where the energy is needed. Even when extensive drilling for oil is not required from shallow wells or pools, energy must still be used for pumping and refining.

Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen can be stored as a gas, liquid, or as a part of a solid metal, polymer or liquid hydrid. Studies have indicated that large-scale storage could take place with gaseous hydrogen underground in aquifers, depleted petroleum or natural gas reservoirs or man made caverns from mining operations. One of the obstacles in using hydrogen as an automotive fuel is storing it safely and efficiently on board vehicles. Although it is possible to store hydrogen as a high pressure gas in steel containers, disadvantages exist because of the weight of the storage containers and the safety hazard in the event of an accident.

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