Anaphora in Celtic and Universal Grammar by R. Hendrick

By R. Hendrick

This publication is predicated largely on fieldwork that I carried out in Brittany and Wales in 1983 and 1985. i'm grateful for a Fulbright Award for examine in Western Europe and a college improvement Award from the collage of North Carolina that funded that fieldwork. lowe a much less tangible, yet no much less actual, debt to Steve Anderson, G. M. Awbery, Steve Harlow and Jim McCloskey whose paintings at the start sparked my curiosity, and led me to adopt this undertaking. i need to thank Joe Emonds and Alec Marantz who learn parts of bankruptcy three and five. i'm rather thankful notwithstanding to Kathleen Flanagan, Frank Heny and nameless referees who learn a dyslexic and schizophrenic manuscript, offering me with criticisms that better this ultimate model significantly. The Welsh nationalist neighborhood in Aberstwyth and its Breton coun­ terpart in Quimper helped make the time I spent in Wales and Brittany efficient. i'm indebted to Thomas Davies, Partick Favreau, Lukian Kergoat, Sue Rhys, John Williams and Beatrice between others for sharing their wisdom in their languages with me. Catrin Davies and Martial Menard have been specially sufferer and worthwhile. with no their counsel this paintings might were infinitely poorer. i'm hopeful that this ebook might help stimulate extra curiosity within the Celtic languages and tradition, and support, even in a small method, these in Wales and Brittany who fight to maintain their language and tradition strong.

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5. Pronouns that Co-occur with Agreement in Breton The account of Welsh just sketched allows us to return to Breton agreement to give an explanation for a rather odd phenomenon that potentially undermines the claim that overt AGR and pronouns are in complementary distribution in Breton. 19 The phenomenon that I have in mind is the ability of subject pronouns to sometimes co-occur with agreement as in (64). Similar constructions appear with prepositional agreement. (64) Warc'hoaz e weIHe/de. tomorrow PRT see-FUT-2SNG-you You will see tomorrow.

The ungrammaticality of (19a) is a consequence of the Avoid Pronoun Principle: because the overt, pronominal agreement can be avoided in this structure, it must be avoided, yielding (19b). Similarly, the ungrammaticality of (19c) and (d), which both contain overt pronouns, can be attributed to the Avoid Pronoun Principle. The structures in (1ge) and (f) are more complicated because they involve empty categories. Since these empty categories are governed, they might either be instances of pro or trace.

Canwn sing-COND-ISNG every day I would sing every day. 38 CHAPTER 2 (30) b. Canai bob dydd. sing-COND-3SNG every day She would sing every day. c. Canent bob dydd. sing-COND-3PL every day They would sing every day. These facts closely resemble the behavior of agreement in Breton as well as that in Irish (see McCloskey and Hale 1984). However, Welsh differs from these other Celtic languages in that it permits verbal agreement to co-occur with expressed pronouns. Thus, in addition to (30) we also find (31 ).

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