By Sarah Iles Johnston
spiritual ideals and practices, which permeated all elements of existence in antiquity, traveled well-worn routes through the Mediterranean: itinerant charismatic practitioners touring from position to put peddled their abilities as healers, purifiers, cursers, and initiators; and vessels embellished with illustrations of myths traveled with them. New gods encountered in international lands via retailers and conquerors have been occasionally taken domestic to be tailored and followed. This number of essays by way of a individual foreign crew of students, drawn from the groundbreaking reference paintings Religion within the historic World, bargains an expansive, comparative point of view in this complicated non secular international.
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Chebeague, Maine:] Casco Bay Assyriological Institute, 2000. Schindler, Alfred, ed. Monotheismus als politisches Problem: Erik Peterson und die Kritik der politischen Theologie. Studien zur evangelischen Ethik 14. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 1978. Van Seters, J. In Search of History: Historiography in the Ancient World and the Origins of Biblical History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983. White, H. G. , ed. and trans. Ausonius. 2 vols. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985. Ritual Jan Bremmer R eaders of this book would, of course, expect a chapter on ritual.
Again, a movement from east to west is highly likely, despite the intriguing and unexplained absence of the technique in Greece, the natural interface between the Levantine east and Italy. More complex still is sacriﬁce. Everywhere in the Mediterranean world, sacriﬁce was at the center of cult. Its ostensible purpose was to feed the gods or the dead: most often, from Ur to Rome, sacriﬁce was understood as a common banquet of gods and humans. Thus, as in human diet, the meat of freshly slaughtered domestic animals was the choice dish, but all other food, from bread and fruit to wine, water, and oil, was used as well.
However, there were always situations when textual semantics led to political action. Canonization. Revealed truth that cannot be reexperienced in any natural way must be codiﬁed in order to be transmittable to future generations. Revolutionary monotheism appeals to memory and transmission rather than to observation, attention, divination, and diligent maintenance. In order to transmit its revolutionary message beyond the ﬁrst generations of founders and followers, it must develop a body of highly normative and canonized scripture.